Who is protecting your coastal borders?

As highlighted by our maritime security editor in his last blog, attacks at sea are as real a threat as attacks on land.

Pressures posed by terrorism, island disputes and ongoing sovereignty issues have seen countries continue to enhance their shoreline and maritime border protection capabilities.

One of the complexities for nations attempting to protect their maritime borders is which organisation holds responsibility for this mission?

You might think that many of these roles would fall under the remit of a national coast guard, however, in practice it is more complex than that, given the range of operations such forces are expected to perform.

In some cases, the overlap between maritime security functions becomes apparent only as navies and smaller civil border forces compete for the same operating space.

The Cape Class patrol boat for the Australian Border Force, built by Austal.

The Cape Class patrol boat for the Australian Border Force, built by Austal.

Coast guards come in many guises. The Australian Border Force carries out most of the country’s coast guard-type duties, while in the Middle East, the UAE deploys its Critical Infrastructure and Coastal Protection Authority for such activities.

The UK maintains a border force that carries out the traditional safety, policing and maritime security role, and a separate coast guard agency responsible for SAR operations.

Meanwhile, the US Coast Guard is akin to, if not larger, than some naval forces.

The USCG operates some of the largest cutters around and is one of the five armed forces of the US.

With this variety of duties and varied organisations supplying equipment and vessels it can be challenging. With a broad range of operations comes a broad range of requirements.

The USCG is currently embarking on a fleet renewal with new Offshore Patrol Cutters, Fast Response Cutters and National Security Cutters, the latter being some of the largest vessels in service.

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Meanwhile Japan is increasing its budget for its coast guard as well as helping out its neighbours as regional tensions in the South China Sea worsen.

Notably in November 2016, Tokyo announced it would donate two decommissioned Japanese Coast Guard vessels to the Malaysia Maritime Enforcement Agency.

For more on coast guard procurement and the latest vessel technology, see the latest issue of International Maritime and Port Security.

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